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1z0-517

LINUX

®

ESSENTIALS

LINUX

®

ESSENTIALS

Roderic k W. Smith

Acquisitions Editor: Agatha Kim 1Z0-517 Development Editor: David Clark Technical Editor: Ross Brunson Production Editor: Rebecca Anderson Copy Editor: Elizabeth Welch Editorial Manager: Pete Gaughan Production Manager: Tim Tate Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard Swadley Vice President and Publisher: Neil Edde Book Designer: Happenstance Type-O-Rama Compositor: James D. Kramer, Happenstance Type-O-Rama Proofreader: Scott Klemp, Word One New York Indexer: Ted Laux Project Coordinator, Cover: Katherine Crocker Cover Designer: Ryan Sneed Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-1-118-10679-2 ISBN: 978-1-18-19741-7 (ebk.) ISBN: 978-1-118-19739-4 (ebk.) ISBN: 978-1-118-19740-0 (ebk.) No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Web site is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Web site may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Web sites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (877) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Some material included with standard print versions of this book may not be included in e-books or in print-on-demand. If this book refers to media such as a CD or DVD that is not included in the version you purchased, you may download this material at http://booksupport.wiley.com. For more information about Wiley products, visit www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Control Number: 2011939652 TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Dear Reader,
Thank you for choosing Linux Essentials. This book is part of a family of premiumquality Sybex books, all of which are written by outstanding authors who combine practical experience with a gift for teaching. Sybex was founded in 1976. More than 30 years later, we’re still committed to producing consistently exceptional books. With each of our titles, we’re working hard to set a new standard for the industry. From the paper we print on, to the authors we work with, our goal is to bring you the best books available. I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. I’d be very interested to hear your comments and get your feedback on how we’re doing. Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other Sybex book by sending me an email at [email protected] If you think you’ve found a technical error in this book, please visit http://sybex.custhelp.com. Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex. Best regards,

Neil edde Vice President and Publisher Sybex, an Imprint of Wiley

A c k n ow l e d g m e n t s
Although this book bears my name as its author, many other people contributed to its creation. Without their help, this book wouldn’t exist, or at best would exist in a lesser form. Agatha Kim was the acquisitions editor, and so helped get the book started. Denise Lincoln and David J. Clark, the development editors, and Rebecca Anderson, the production editor, oversaw the book as it progressed through all its stages. Ross Brunson was the technical editor, who checked the text for technical errors and omissions–but any mistakes that remain are my own. Liz Welch, the copy editor, helped keep the text grammatical and understandable. The proofreader, Scott Klemp, checked the text for typos. I’d also like to thank Neil Salkind and others at Studio B, who helped connect me with Wiley to write this book.

About

the

Author

Roderick W. Smith, LPIC-2, LPIC-1, CompTIA Linux+, is a Linux consultant, author, and open source programmer. He is the author of over 20 books on Linux and other open source technologies, including Linux+ Complete Study Guide; LPIC-1 Study Guide, 2nd Edition; LPIC-2 Study Guide, and Linux Administrator Street Smarts, all from Sybex.

contents
CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 9 C H A P T E R 10 C H A P T E R 11 C H A P T E R 12 C H A P T E R 13 C H A P T E R 14 C H A P T E R 15 C H A P T E R 16 C H A P T E R 17 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B

At A

gl Ance
xvii 1 21 33 49 75 99 117 131 149 165 185 203 217 235 257 271 285 307 325 329

Introduction Selecting an Operating System Investigating Linux’s Principles and Philosophy Understanding Software Licensing Using Common Linux Programs Managing Hardware Getting to Know the Command Line Managing Files Getting Help Using Programs and Processes Searching, Extracting, and Archiving Data Editing Files Creating Scripts Understanding Users and Groups Creating Users and Groups Setting Ownership and Permissions Navigating the Linux Filesystem Managing Network Connections Answers to Review Questions LPI’s Certification Program Index

contents
Introduction xvii

c hApter 1

Selecting an Ope rating Syste m

1

What Is an OS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What Is a Kernel? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What Else Identifies an OS?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Investigating User Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Using a Text-Mode User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Using a Graphical User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Where Does Linux Fit in the OS World? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Comparing Linux to Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Comparing Linux to Mac OS X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Comparing Linux to Windows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 What Is a Distribution?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Creating a Complete Linux-Based OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 A Summary of Common Linux Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Understanding Release Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 The Essentials and Beyond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

c hApter 2

I nvestigating Linu x’s P rinc iples and Philosophy
Linux through the Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Linux’s Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seeing Today’s Linux World. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Open Source Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Basic Open 1z0-517 free dumps Source Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linux as a Software Integrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding OS Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Embedded Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Desktop and Laptop Computers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Server Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Essentials and Beyond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .