Cisco.642-732.2013-12-14.by.Sandra.51q

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Selftestengine
QUESTION 1
You have been contacted by a medium sized medical center to do a site survey of their existing WLAN. The current network is set up with multiple SSIDs/VLANs to separate voice and data and the networks functioning properly. The medical center would like to add Vocera voice badges to the existing VoWLAN. Which two issues need to be considered during the site survey? (Choose two.)
A. The additional voice endpoints may increase additional load, which may increase delay in the WLAN and cause voice quality to degrade.
B. There will not be any issues due to adding the Vocera voice badges because they are point-to- point devices and do not require the infrastructure to communicate.
C. Verify the WLAN is multicast enabled for Vocera voice badges.
D. To make these devices as efficient as possible, the Vocera voice badges should be placed on their own unicast SSID/VLAN.
E. Verify the WLAN that is being used by the Vocera voice badges is configured in the WLC to use the Gold QoS value.

Correct Answer: AC Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 2
You have a client that would like to upgrade their 2.4-GHz point-to-point wireless bridge link between buildings in their facility in Mexico. Currently, they have radios from vendor A that are transmitting at 14 dBm with 6 dBm antennas. They would like to upgrade the radios to vendor B but keep the existing antennas. The new radios from vendor B have a fixed transmit power of 7 dBm. How should you proceed?
A. Install the new radios with existing vendor A antennas.
B. Install new radios with replacement vendor A antennas rated at 13 dBm.
C. Install new radios with replacement vendor A antennas rated at 30 dBm.
D. Install the new radios with new vendor B antennas rated at 29 dBm.
E. Install the new radios with new vendor B antennas rated at 13 dBm.

Correct Answer: E Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 3
Which three types of infrastructure issues need to be verified prior to performing a wireless site survey? (Choose three.)
A. MDF and IDF closet locations and if the cable that runs from each closet can reach the proposed AP locations.
B. Available riser capacity for additional backbone cable connections
C. VLAN and IP address deployment strategy
D. Status of QoS deployed
E. Electrical capacity for each MDF and IDF
F. HVAC capacity for each MDF and IDF
G. Locations of application servers

Correct Answer: ACD Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference: QUESTION 4

Which three things do you need to consider prior to performing a wireless site survey? (Choose three.)
A. The time required to acquire any additional infrastructure components.
B. The time required to survey each potential AP location.
C. The time required to assess application server locations at the customer facility.
D. The type of wireless survey tools required to perform the site survey.
E. The time required to assess customer WLAN density and throughput requirements.
F.     The time required to utilize the design mode in Cisco WCS to prepare a preliminary WLAN design to reduce on-site survey time.

Correct Answer: BDE Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 5
Aside from software applications, which two tools will be important to have when performing a WLAN site survey? (Choose two.)
A. Measuring tools
B. Temporary attachment devices (tie-wraps, clamps, duct tape)
C. Architectural design drawings
D. Different sizes and types of wrenches and pliers
E. Portable battery packs to power WLAN clients
F.     Flag tape to outline wireless cell dimensions

Correct Answer: AB Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 6
Which three basic pieces of information will you need to perform a WLAN site survey? (Choose three.)
A. How many customer user interviews will be required?
B. Which network hardware vendor do they currently use for their infrastructure?
C. What is the location of the facility that needs to be surveyed?
D. What financial information will my company need to provide to the customer?
E. How many engineers will be required to perform the work?
F.     What is the expected timeline to complete the project?

Correct Answer: CEF Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 7
What is the recommended method to protect a wireless outdoor bridge from lightning?
A. Install the wireless outdoor bridge in a grounded NEMA enclosure.
B. Install the wireless outdoor bridge inside a building if possible and only have the antenna outside.
C. Install a fiber-optic link between the wireless outdoor bridge and the antenna.
D. Install a one-meter segment of fiber-optic cable with a copper-to-fiber-optic transceiver to isolate the wireless outdoor bridge from the network cable plant.
E. Install a protection frame in the copper portion of the network cable plant to act as a lighting arrestor.

Correct Answer: D Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 8
Which three statements describe WLAN RF interaction with environmental situations? (Choose three.)
A. Outdoor rain or indoor humidity affects diffraction.
B. Outdoor rain or indoor humidity affects attenuation.
C. RF frequency is inversely related to attenuation.
D. RF frequency is directly related to attenuation.
E. The human body affects diffusion.
F. The human body affects attenuation.

Correct Answer: BDF Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 9
Which piece of information gathered during a WLAN site survey should be included in the customer report?
A. Analysis of server location and applications supported.
B. Analysis of fiber-optic backbone infrastructure.
C. Output from Cisco WCS Location Quality Inspector.
D. Output from Cisco WCS VoWLAN Voice Readiness Tool.
E. Output from Cisco WCS Planning Mode Tool.

Correct Answer: E Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 10
Which option will allow the maximum 2.4 GHz channel usage for a survey and voice deployment in the ETSI domain?
A. 1, 6, 11
B. 1, 5, 9, 13
C. 1, 6, 9, 14
D. 1, 6, 11, 14

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Download Adobe 9A0-129 Exam PDF

9a0-129

9A0-129 Contents

xv

Security Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528 Denial of Service Man in the Middle Malware 9A0-129 9A0-129 exam dumps free Buffer Overflow Social Engineering Wireless Threats Mitigation Techniques 529 529 530 531 531 532 533

Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535 Chapter Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538 Exercise Chapter Review 538 538

chapter 12 Network management
Cable Diagrams Network Diagrams Network Maps Hardware Configurations Change Management Baselines Logs SNMP Protocol Analyzers Port Scanners Vulnerability Scanners

541
543 544 546 546 547 547 549 556 558 563 565

Network Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542

Network Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549

xvi

Contents

Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 Virtualization Architectures Desktop Virtualization Virtual Switching Presentation Virtualization Application Virtualization Virtual PBXes Caching Data Traffic Control Redundant Services 567 569 570 570 571 571 573 574 575

Performance Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572

Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578 Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 Chapter Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581 Exercise Chapter Review 581 581

chapter 13 Network troubleshooting
The Ping Program Traceroute Ifconfig and Ipconfig.exe ARP Netstat Nbtstat.exe Nslookup Dig Route

583
585 586 588 589 590 594 595 596 597

Troubleshooting Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585

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Microsoft is interested in hearing your feedback so we can continually improve our books and learning resources for you. To participate in a brief online survey, please visit:

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Contents xvii

Troubleshooting Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597 Identify the Problem Establish a Theory Test the Theory Establish a Plan of Action Implement the Solution Verify System Functionality Document Findings Troubleshooting Connectivity Issues Troubleshooting Wireless Problems Troubleshooting Router and Switch Problems Incident Administration Gathering Information Possible Cause: Internet Router Problem Possible Cause: Internet Communication Problem Possible Cause: DNS Failure Possible Cause: LAN Communications Problem Possible Cause: Computer Configuration Problem Possible Cause: User Error 598 601 601 602 603 603 604 605 606 607 612 613 614 616 617 622 626 630

Network Troubleshooting Scenario: “I Can’t Access a Website” . . . . . . . . 612

Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 Chapter Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634 Exercise Chapter Review 634 634

Glossary

637

Index

655

xviii

Contents

Introduction
This training kit is designed for information technology (IT) professionals who support or plan to support networks and who also plan to take the CompTIA Network+ exam. It is assumed that before you begin using this kit, you have a CompTIA A+ certification or the equivalent knowledge, as well as 9 to 12 months of work experience in IT networking. The material covered in this training kit and on the Network+ exam relates to the technologies in a network that support distributed access to web content, media, operating systems, and applications. The topics in this training kit cover what you need to know for the exam as described on the Certification Exam Objectives document for the exam, which is available at: http://certification.comptia.org/getCertified/certifications/network.aspx By using this training kit, you will learn how to do the following:

Use the Open Systems 9A0-129 exam 9A0-129 exam dumps Interconnection (OSI) reference model to understand network processes. Install and maintain the various cables and other media used to build networks. Understand the protocols that networked computers use to communicate. Understand how routers and switches connect network devices to each other and to other networks. Connect to distant networks by using wide area network (WAN) technologies. Secure a network by using firewalls and other tools. Use network monitoring and diagnostic tools. Troubleshoot network problems in a systematic and logical manner.

Sample Exam 1Z0-517 PDF Questions,Latest 1z0-517 Questions

1z0-517

LINUX

®

ESSENTIALS

LINUX

®

ESSENTIALS

Roderic k W. Smith

Acquisitions Editor: Agatha Kim 1Z0-517 Development Editor: David Clark Technical Editor: Ross Brunson Production Editor: Rebecca Anderson Copy Editor: Elizabeth Welch Editorial Manager: Pete Gaughan Production Manager: Tim Tate Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard Swadley Vice President and Publisher: Neil Edde Book Designer: Happenstance Type-O-Rama Compositor: James D. Kramer, Happenstance Type-O-Rama Proofreader: Scott Klemp, Word One New York Indexer: Ted Laux Project Coordinator, Cover: Katherine Crocker Cover Designer: Ryan Sneed Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-1-118-10679-2 ISBN: 978-1-18-19741-7 (ebk.) ISBN: 978-1-118-19739-4 (ebk.) ISBN: 978-1-118-19740-0 (ebk.) No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Web site is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Web site may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Web sites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (877) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Some material included with standard print versions of this book may not be included in e-books or in print-on-demand. If this book refers to media such as a CD or DVD that is not included in the version you purchased, you may download this material at http://booksupport.wiley.com. For more information about Wiley products, visit www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Control Number: 2011939652 TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Dear Reader,
Thank you for choosing Linux Essentials. This book is part of a family of premiumquality Sybex books, all of which are written by outstanding authors who combine practical experience with a gift for teaching. Sybex was founded in 1976. More than 30 years later, we’re still committed to producing consistently exceptional books. With each of our titles, we’re working hard to set a new standard for the industry. From the paper we print on, to the authors we work with, our goal is to bring you the best books available. I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. I’d be very interested to hear your comments and get your feedback on how we’re doing. Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other Sybex book by sending me an email at [email protected] If you think you’ve found a technical error in this book, please visit http://sybex.custhelp.com. Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex. Best regards,

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A c k n ow l e d g m e n t s
Although this book bears my name as its author, many other people contributed to its creation. Without their help, this book wouldn’t exist, or at best would exist in a lesser form. Agatha Kim was the acquisitions editor, and so helped get the book started. Denise Lincoln and David J. Clark, the development editors, and Rebecca Anderson, the production editor, oversaw the book as it progressed through all its stages. Ross Brunson was the technical editor, who checked the text for technical errors and omissions–but any mistakes that remain are my own. Liz Welch, the copy editor, helped keep the text grammatical and understandable. The proofreader, Scott Klemp, checked the text for typos. I’d also like to thank Neil Salkind and others at Studio B, who helped connect me with Wiley to write this book.

About

the

Author

Roderick W. Smith, LPIC-2, LPIC-1, CompTIA Linux+, is a Linux consultant, author, and open source programmer. He is the author of over 20 books on Linux and other open source technologies, including Linux+ Complete Study Guide; LPIC-1 Study Guide, 2nd Edition; LPIC-2 Study Guide, and Linux Administrator Street Smarts, all from Sybex.

contents
CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 9 C H A P T E R 10 C H A P T E R 11 C H A P T E R 12 C H A P T E R 13 C H A P T E R 14 C H A P T E R 15 C H A P T E R 16 C H A P T E R 17 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B

At A

gl Ance
xvii 1 21 33 49 75 99 117 131 149 165 185 203 217 235 257 271 285 307 325 329

Introduction Selecting an Operating System Investigating Linux’s Principles and Philosophy Understanding Software Licensing Using Common Linux Programs Managing Hardware Getting to Know the Command Line Managing Files Getting Help Using Programs and Processes Searching, Extracting, and Archiving Data Editing Files Creating Scripts Understanding Users and Groups Creating Users and Groups Setting Ownership and Permissions Navigating the Linux Filesystem Managing Network Connections Answers to Review Questions LPI’s Certification Program Index

contents
Introduction xvii

c hApter 1

Selecting an Ope rating Syste m

1

What Is an OS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What Is a Kernel? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What Else Identifies an OS?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Investigating User Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Using a Text-Mode User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Using a Graphical User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Where Does Linux Fit in the OS World? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Comparing Linux to Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Comparing Linux to Mac OS X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Comparing Linux to Windows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 What Is a Distribution?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Creating a Complete Linux-Based OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 A Summary of Common Linux Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Understanding Release Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 The Essentials and Beyond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

c hApter 2

I nvestigating Linu x’s P rinc iples and Philosophy
Linux through the Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Linux’s Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seeing Today’s Linux World. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Open Source Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Basic Open 1z0-517 free dumps Source Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linux as a Software Integrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding OS Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Embedded Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Desktop and Laptop Computers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Server Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Essentials and Beyond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1Z0-889 Copyright © 2002 by Gerhard Mourani and Open Network Architecture, Inc.

This book is dedicated to OpenNA staff. Thanks, guys (no-gender)!! –Gerhard Mourani This book is printed on acid-free paper with 85% recycled content, 15% post-consumer waste. Open Network Architecture is commited to using paper with the highest recycled 1Z0-889 content available consistent with high quality.

Copyright © 2002 by Gerhard Mourani and Open Network Architecture, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted by Canada Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the copyright holders Gerhard Mourani and Open Network Architecture, Inc. 11090 Drouart, Montreal, PQ H3M 2S3, (514) 978-6183, fax (514) 333-0236. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the

Publishing Manager, at Open Network Architecture, Inc., E-mail: [email protected] This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that some grammatical mistakes could have occurred but this won’t jeopardize the content or the issue raised herewith. Title: Securing and Optimizing Linux: The Hacking Solution Page Count: 1208 Version: 3.0 Last Revised: 2002-06-26 Publisher: Open Network Architecture, Inc. Editor: Ted Nackad Text Design & Drawings (Graphics): Bruno Mourani Printing History: June 2000: First Publication. Author’s: Gerhard Mourani Mail: [email protected] Website: http://www.openna.com/ National Library Act. R.S., c. N-11, s. 1. Legal Deposit, 2002 Securing and Optimizing Linux: The Hacking Solution / Open Network Architecture, Inc. Published by Open Network Architecture, Inc., 11090 Drouart, Montreal, H3M 2S3, Canada. Includes Index. ISBN 0-9688793-1-4 Printed in Canada

1

Overview
Part I
Chapter 1 Chapter 2

Installation Security
Introduction Installation Issues

Part II
Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7

System Security & Optimization
General Security Pluggable Authentication Modules General Optimization Kernel Security & Optimization Process File System Management

Part III Network Security
Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 TCP/IP Network Management Firewall Basic Concept GIPTables Firewall Squid Proxy Server SquidGuard Filter FreeS/WAN VPN

Part IV Cryptography & Authentication
Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 GnuPG OpenSSL OpenSSH Sudo

Part V

Monitoring & System Integrity
sXid LogSentry HostSentry PortSentry Snort Tripwire

Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23

Part VI Super-Server
Chapter 24 Chapter 25 UCSPI-TCP Xinetd

Part VII Management & Limitation
Chapter 26 Chapter 27 NTP Quota

Part VIII Domain Name System & Dynamic Host Protocol
Chapter 28 Chapter 29 ISC BIND & DNS ISC DHCP

Part IX Mail Transfer Agent Protocol
Chapter 30 Chapter 31 Exim Qmail

2

Part X

Internet Message Access Protocol
tpop3d UW IMAP Qpopper

Chapter 32 Chapter 33 Chapter 34

Part XI
Chapter 35 Chapter 36 Chapter 37

Anti-Spam & Anti-Virus
SpamAssassin Sophos AMaViS

Part XII Database Server
Chapter 38 Chapter 39 Chapter 40 MySQL PostgreSQL OpenLDAP

Part XIII File Transfer Protocol
Chapter 41 Chapter 42 ProFTPD vsFTPD

Part XIV Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Chapter 43 Chapter 44 Chapter 45 Apache PHP Mod_Perl

Part XV NetBios Protocol
Chapter 46 Samba

Part XVI Backup
Chapter 47 Tar & Dump

Part XVII Appendixes Appendix A
Tweaks, Tips and Administration Tasks

Appendix B
Port list

3

Contents
Steps of installation Author note Audience These installation instructions assume Obtaining the example configuration files Problem with Securing & Optimizing Linux Acknowledgments 13 13 14 15 15 15 15

Introduction

19
21 21 21 22 22 23 24 25

What is Linux? Some good reasons to use Linux Let’s dispel some of the fear, uncertainty, and doubt about Linux Why choose pristine source? Compiling software on your system Build & install software on your system Editing files with the vi editor tool Recommended software to include in each type of servers

Installation Issues

29
31 31 33 34 35 39 50 53 53 56 57 65 66 66

Know your Hardware! Creating the Linux Boot Disk Beginning the installation of Linux Installation Class and Method (Install Options) Partition your system for Linux Disk Partition (Manual Partitioning) Selecting Package Groups Boot Disk Creation How to use RPM Commands Starting and stopping daemon services Software that must be uninstalled after installation of the server Remove unnecessary documentation files Remove unnecessary/empty files and directories Software that must be installed after installation of the server

General Security 73
BIOS Unplug your server from the network Security as a policy Choose a right password The root account Set login time out for the root account Shell logging The single-user login mode of Linux Disabling Ctrl-Alt-Delete keyboard shutdown command Limiting the default number of started ttys on the server The LILO and /etc/lilo.conf file The GRUB and /boot/grub/grub.conf file The /etc/services file 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 79 79 80 80 82 84

4

The /etc/securetty file Special accounts Control mounting a file system Mounting the /usr directory of Linux as read-only Tighten scripts under /etc/init.d Tighten scripts under /etc/cron.daily/ Bits from root-owned programs Don’t let internal machines tell the server what their MAC address is Unusual or hidden files Finding Group and World Writable files and directories Unowned files Finding .rhosts files Physical hard copies of all-important logs Getting some more security by removing manual pages System is compromised!

85 85 88 89 91 91 91 93 94 95 96 96 97 99 100

Pluggable Authentication Modules

101
103 105 105 106 107 109 111 112 113

The password length Disabling console program access Disabling all console access The Login access control table Tighten console permissions for privileged users Putting limits on resource Controlling access time to services Blocking; su to root, by one and sundry Using sudo instead of su for logging as super-user

General Optimization

116
118 119 120 121 122 127 128

Static vs. shared libraries The Glibc 2.2 library of Linux Why Linux programs are distributed as source Some misunderstanding in the compiler flags options The gcc specs file Striping all binaries and libraries files Tuning IDE Hard Disk Performance

Kernel Security & Optimization

133
135 138 139 141 141 142 143 145 190 190 192 194 195 195

Difference between a Modularized Kernel and a Monolithic Kernel Making an emergency boot floppy Preparing the Kernel for the installation Applying the 1z0-889 dumps Grsecurity kernel patch Obtaining and Installing Grsecurity Tuning the Kernel Cleaning up the Kernel Configuring the Kernel Compiling the Kernel Installing the Kernel Verifying or upgrading your boot loader Reconfiguring /etc/modules.conf file Rebooting your system to load the new kernel Delete programs, edit files pertaining to modules

5

Making a new rescue floppy for Modularized Kernel Making a emergency boot floppy disk for Monolithic Kernel

196 196

Use Cisco 650-968 Discovery Protocol and show commands to verify the Layer 1 and Layer 2

CCNPv6 TSHOOT
Physical Topology

Objectives

Background
Note:
Required Resources
Task 1: Assign Responsibility for  650-968

Each Device (optional) Step 1: Review the lab topology together with your team members. Step 2: Assign responsibility for each device to a team member.
Device Responsibilities Table Device Description Responsible Team Member
Task 2: Load the Baseline Device Configuration Files
Note:
ip host name ip-addr
Step 1: Verify the existence and location of the lab configuration files.
show flash cd dir

Note:

show flash
cd
ALS1#show flash:
Directory of flash:/
3 -rwx 916 Mar 1 1993 00:00:29 +00:00 vlan.dat 619 -rwx 6582 Mar 1 1993 00:10:09 +00:00 config.text 6 drwx 192 Oct 9 2009 13:00:50 +00:00 c2960-lanbasek9-mz.122-46.SE.bin 622 drwx 128 Oct 9 2009 13:03:05 +00:00 tshoot
ALS1#cd tshoot ALS1#dir Directory of flash:/tshoot/
623 -rwx 6582 Oct 9 2009 13:03:05 +00:00 Lab31-ALS1-Base-Cfg.txt 624 -rwx 6578 Oct 9 2009 12:32:48 +00:00 Lab41-ALS1-TT-A-Cfg.txt <output omitted>
Alternatively, you can see the contents of the directory by specifying its name using the dir command. For example:
ALS1#dir flash:/tshoot Directory of flash:/tshoot/
5 -rwx 6515 Oct 9 2009 14:39:42 +00:00 Lab31-ALS1-Base-Cfg.txt
Note:

show flash

R1#show flash: -#—length——-date/time——path
1 38266988 Sep 24 2009 17:47:14 c1841-advipservicesk9-mz.124-24.T1.bin
2 0 Oct 09 2009 12:32:06 tshoot
3 2288 Oct 09 2009 12:32:48 tshoot/Lab31-R1-Base-Cfg.txt

<output omitted>
Step 2: Erase the startup config from NVRAM.
ALS1#erase startup-config
Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all configuration files! Continue?
[confirm]
[OK]
Erase of nvram: complete

Step 3: Delete the VLAN database from flash (switches only).
ALS1#delete vlan.dat
Delete flash:vlan.dat? [confirm]
Step 4: Reload the device, but do not save the system configuration if prompted.
ALS1#reload
System configuration has been modified. Save? [yes/no]: no
Proceed with reload? [confirm]

*Oct 1 00:29:28.704: %SYS-5-RELOAD: Reload requested by console. Reload Reason: Reload command.
Step 5: When the device restarts, do not enter the initial configuration dialog, but terminate autoinstall if prompted.
Press RETURN to get started!
—System Configuration Dialog —Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]: Enter
Step 6: Copy the specified lab device configuration file from flash to the running config.
Switch>enable Switch#copy flash:/tshoot/Lab31-ALS1-Base-Cfg.txt running-config Destination filename [running-config]? Enter
ALS1#

Step 7: Copy the running config to the startup config.
ALS1#copy running-config startup-config
Building configuration…
[OK]

Note:

admin enable

ciscoenpa55
Step 8: Repeat Steps 1 through 7 for the other devices in the network.
Step 9: Configure the PCs.
Step 10: Test basic network connectivity between devices.
Note: Task 3: Analyze and Document the Physical Lab Topology Note:
Step 1: Review the physical topology diagram on page 1 of the lab.
connections of the lab topology.

show cdp
Device Links Table
From Device Interface To Device Interface Layer 1 and 2 Features and Protocols Used
From Device Interface To Device Interface Layer 1 and 2 Features and Protocols Used
Step 3: Map the VLANs used in the lab to the devices in the diagram.
VLAN Definition Table
VLAN # Name Description VLAN Members
Step 4: Analyze spanning tree for the Layer 2 switched domain.
Step 5: Diagram the spanning tree for VLAN 10.

Student Notes
Task 4: Analyze and Document the Logical Cisco 650-968 Exam Lab Topology Step 1: Review the logical lab diagram and the subnets.

600-511 Cisco Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:CSCO) News Sentiment Score At 0.299

The latest way to get the stock sentiment on listed companies in the market is algorithm-based analytics, which is also used by Alpha One. It helps retail investors to make an investment choice and earn profits from wise investments. For getting this stock sentiment, the group tracks news from numerous channels. The only thing that has 600-511 to be taken care of is the quality of articles. These articles should be latest and relevant so as to get a rational sentiment score. Cisco Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:CSCO) has been given a 0.299 score by group.

Coming to the scale, the group assigns impact score on a 1-100 scale. The score, given on a daily basis, is referred by investors to 74-353 gauge the direction of stock in a single session. Cisco Systems, Inc. has a 80 in the last session. Following this impact score, the experts tracking the equity, have assigned a 13-month price forecast of $28.63 on the stock.

It is computed by A4040-332 considering the stock recommendations of 23 analysts. These market experts took part in Zacks poll, and designed a price range of varying from the bullish target of $37 to the bearish target of $17.

It is process advanced by Zacks wherein it collects analysts’ views and gets an average score on a beginner’s scale. It in turns makes it easy for shareholders to interpret the analysts’ lingo and obtain a clear direction stock. The Zacks ABR range varies in A4040-226 a range of 1 to 5. The stock holds bullish view when it has a rating of one while the outlook is the street in case stock has a rating of 5. Cisco Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:CSCO) ABR stands at 1.81 while it was 1.81 three months ago.

The firm can report its quarterly earnings around 2016-05-11. It is a probable date calculated by the last update issued by the company. Zacks had specified C_BOWI_30 EPS target of $0.55 for this quarter, which may be not matching with First Call EPS projected numbers.

Shareholders will be following the revised earnings estimates prior the earnings date. Cisco Systems, Inc. posted C_TBW55_73 EPS of $0.53 for quarter closed on 2016-01-31. It missed Zacks estimate by $0.09 leading to a alarming deviation of 20.45%.

It is an accustomed trend for the publicly listed companies to react to the announced quarterly report. In case, Cisco Systems, Inc. posts numbers better than the market expectations, the stock price can record sharp gains in the sessions after the earnings release.

Cisco Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:CSCO) Sentiment Rating At 3.67

Cisco Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:CSCO) has succeeded in getting a sentiment rating of 3.67, which was nailed after ClosingBell.co ended its poll. It collected all important data to obtain an average score on a ‘1-5’ scale. For record, it is imperative to detail C2010-570 that rating of one signifies upbeat opinion on the stock and score of five highlights bearish outlook. These ratings direct investors get an additional outlook on investment sentiment in contrast to research group’s view on the stock.

Cisco Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:CSCO) stock has fetched 21 active ratings. In all, the average buy rating count is computed at 13 while the bullish statements count stands at 1. Another group PsychSignal prefers to C2050-241 get mass stock sentiment using “Natural Language Processing Engine”. This advanced system is well designed and directs investors in reading the digital terminology of Wall Street analysts. PsychSignal recorded 21 messages on leading social media platforms such as Twitter.

The novel ‘Natural Language Processing’ method gathers the C2070-588 mass sentiment to get an outlook on a stock. It is used to provide a basic understanding of analysts terminology to investors. As per the 21 posts recorded on N/A, bullish statements count was N/A while negative posts count was N/A.

PsycgSignal’s methodology is an excellent process, which evaluates latest online posts pertaining to stock for Bullishness and C2090-463 Bearishness intensity. As per this mechanism, the score of ‘0’ stands for bullish sentiment and ‘4’ is for increased intensity of Bullish sentiment. Cisco Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:CSCO)’s Bullish Sentiment is N/A. Similarly, the bearishness extent ranges from 0-4, where 4 indicate strong bearishness sentiment on a given stock.

On N/A, the Bearish Sentiment score of N/A was N/A. Of C2090-611 the total 21 posts on Twitter, N/A had positive sentiment while N/A leaded to bearish views. There were N/A on StockTwits, of which, N/A were negative against N/A positive messages.

The bullish degree C2090-730 stood at N/A while N/A was the intensity of bearishness. This analysis is compared against the analysts’ recommendations. Cisco Systems, Inc. has a score of 1.81, which reflects the combined view of Wall Street analysts surveyed in Zacks poll.

Cisco Systems, Inc. has a consensus 600-511 npdes aci score of 1.81 a quarter earlier. The wide range of price estimate is put from $17 to $37. The mean price estimation of $28.63 was reached after polling 23 experts. Cisco Systems, Inc. can post its earnings around 2016-05-11.