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QUESTION 41
In the component isolation technique, if you do not get a startup chime and/or a flashing question mark, you check the components of the minimal system by _________.
A. Visually inspecting them for damage.
B. Replacing them with known-good parts in any order.
C. Adding more known-good parts in a specified order.
D. Replacing them with known-good parts in specified order.

Correct Answer: D
QUESTION 42
When practicing component isolation, which ONE of the following components would NOT be a part of a minimal system configuration for a Power Mac G4 (Mirrored Doors)?
A. SDRAM
B. Speaker
C. Hard Drive
D. Logic Board
E. Power Cable
F. Power Supply
G. Front Panel Board
H. Processor with Heatsink

Correct Answer: C
QUESTION 43
The basis for the component isolation troubleshooting technique is an understanding of ______ within computers.
A. power flow
B. software data flow
C. firmware data flow
D. processor instruction flow

Correct Answer: A
QUESTION 44
When setting up a minimal system using the component isolation technique, you start with only the components necessary to_____.
A. Boot the system into Mac OS 9.
B. Boot the system into Mac OS X.
C. Boot the system into Open Firmware diagnostics.
D. Hear a boot chime and/or see a flashing question mark on a display.

Correct Answer: D
QUESTION 45
You are using component isolation to troubleshoot a Power Mac G4 (Quicksilver). You have already reduced the computer to the appropriate minimal configuration. You have just installed a known-good video card and have attached a known-good external VGA display to it. Upon startup, you see a flashing question mark on the VGA display, but you hear no startup chime. What signals or power could be missing to cause this problem?
A. Timing signals to the processor through the logic board.
B. Power to the memory subsystem through the logic board.
C. Backup battery voltage to the PMU through the logic board.
D. Audio signals to the speaker through the front panel board.

Correct Answer: D
QUESTION 46
What is the BEST way to properly ground an ESD workbench mat?
A. Attach the mat to the unit being serviced.
B. Connect the mat to a grounded electrical outlet.
C. Connect only the wriest strap and cord to a grounded electrical outlet.
D. Connect the wrist strap and cord only to the mat.

Correct Answer: B
QUESTION 47
What humidity level should be maintained to ensure an ESD-safe environment?
A. 25%-40%
B. 50%-75%
C. 75%-90%
D. 90%-100%
Correct Answer: C  200-120 exam
QUESTION 48
Which FOUR of the following actions helps reduce the risk of damage from ESD? (Choose four)
A. Ground yourself and the equipment you are working on.
B. Always place ESD-sensitive components on metal surfaces.
C. Handle all ESD-sensitive boards by the connectors, not the edges.
D. Use static-shielding storage bags for ESD-sensitive components.
E. Do not bring plastic, vinyl, or foamed polystyrene near ESD-sensitive components.
Correct Answer: ABDE
QUESTION 49
Which of the following items are appropriate to use for ESD prevention? Select all that apply.
A. Metal work surface
B. CRT discharge tool
C. Grounded work mat
D. Wrist strap and cord
E. Static-shielding bags

Correct Answer: CDE
QUESTION 50
Which of the following is the most common example of electrostatic discharge?
A. You touch an object and feel a brief spark.
B. You see a bright flash on the CRT display of an eMac.
C. You plug a power cord into an outlet and you see a spark.
D. You hear a cracking noise coming from inside the computer.

Correct Answer: A
QUESTION 51
A customer states that her iMac (Flat Panel) display is constantly showing a bright all-white screen. You connect an external VGA display to the iMac (Flat Panel) and confirm that the problem is not with the operating system or the logic board. Based upon your knowledge of LCD display, what would be the most likely cause of this problem?
A. Failed LCD module
B. Failed power supply
C. Failed inverter board
D. Corrupt PMU

Correct Answer: A

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QUESTION 88
View the Exhibit and examine the structure of the MARKS_DETAILS and MARKStables.

Which is the best method to load data from the MARKS DETAILStable to the MARKStable?
A. Pivoting INSERT
B. Unconditional INSERT
C. Conditional ALL INSERT
D. Conditional FIRST INSERT

Correct Answer: A
QUESTION 89
Which statements are true regarding the usage of the WITH clause in complex correlated subqueries? (Choose all that apply.)
A. It can be used only with the SELECT clause.
B. The WITH clause can hold more than one query.
C. If the query block name and the table name were the same, then the table name would take precedence.
D. The query name in the WITH clause is visible to other query blocks in the WITH clause as well as to the main query block.

Correct Answer: ABD
QUESTION 90
OE and SCOTT are the users in the database. The ORDERS table is owned by OE. Evaluate the
statements issued by the DBA in the following sequence:

CREATE ROLE r1;
GRANT SELECT, INSERT ON oe. orders TO r1;
GRANT r1 TO scott;
GRANT SELECT ON oe. orders TO scott;
REVOKE SELECT ON oe.orders FROM scott;

What would be the outcome after executing the statements?

A. SCOTT would be able to query the OE.ORDERS table.
B. SCOTT would not be able to query the OE.ORDERS table.
C. The REVOKE statement would remove the SELECT privilege from SCOTT as well as from the role R1.
D. The REVOKE statement would give an error because the SELECT privilege has been granted to the role R1

Correct Answer: A
QUESTION 91
Which statements are true? (Choose all that apply.)
A. The data dictionary is created and maintained by the database administrator.
B. The data dictionary views can consist of joins of dictionary base tables and user-defined tables.
C. The usernames of all the users including the database administrators are stored in the data dictionary.
D. The USER_CONS_COLUMNS view should be queried to find the names of the columns to which a constraint applies.
E. Both USER_ODBJECTS and CAT views provide the same information about all the objects that are owned by the user.
F. Views with the same name but different prefixes, such as DBA, ALL and USER, use the same base tables from the data dictionary

Correct Answer: CDF  100-101 practice exam
QUESTION 92
Which three statements are true? (Choose three.)
A. Only one LONG column can be used per table.
B. ATIMESTAMP data type column stores only time values with fractional seconds.
C. The BLOB data type column is used to store binary data in an operating system file.
D. The minimum column width that can be specified for a varchar2 data type column is one.
E. The value for a CHAR data type column is blank-padded to the maximum defined column width.
Correct Answer: ADE

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QUESTION 93
Which statement best describes the GROUPING function?
A. It is used to set the order for the groups to be used for calculating the grand totals and subtotals.
B. It is used to form various groups to calculate total and subtotals created using ROLLUP and CUBE operators.
C. It is used to identify if the NULL value in an expression is a stored NULL value or created by ROLLUP or CUBE.
D. It is used to specify the concatenated group expressions to be used for calculating the grand totals and subtotals.
Correct Answer: C    http://www.exampass.net/cisco-352-001-pdf.html
QUESTION 94
View the Exhibit and examine the description of the DEPARTMENTS and EMPLOYEES tables.

To retrieve data for all the employees for their EMPLOYEE_ID, FIRST_NAME, and DEPARTMENT NAME,
the following SQL statement was written:

SELECT employee_id, first_name, department_name
FROM employees NATURAL JOIN departments;
The desired output is not obtained after executing the above SQL statement. What could be the reason for
this?

A. The NATURAL JOIN clause is missing the USING clause.
B. The table prefix is missing for the column names in the SELECT clause.
C. The DEPARTMENTS table is not used before the EMPLOYEES table in the FROM clause.
D. The EMPLOYEES and DEPARTMENTS tables have more than one column with the same column name and data type.

Correct Answer: D
QUESTION 95
View the Exhibit and examine the structure of EMPLOYEES and JOB_HISTORY tables. The EMPLOYEES table maintains the most recent information regarding salary, department, and job for all the employees. The JOB_HISTORY table maintains the record for all the job changes for the employees. You want to delete all the records from the JOB_HISTORY table that are repeated in the EMPLOYEES table.

Which two SQL statements can you execute to accomplish the task? (Choose two.)
A. DELETEFROM job_history jWHERE employee_id =(SELECT employee_idFROM employees eWHERE j.employee_id = e.employee_id)AND job_id = (SELECT job_idFROM employees eWHERE j.job_id = e.job_id);
B. DELETEFROM job_history jWHERE (employee_id, job_id) = ALL(SELECT employee_id, job_idFROM employees eWHERE j.employee_id = e.employee_id and j.job_id = e.job_id)
C. DELETEFROM job_history jWHERE employee_id =(SELECT employee_idFROM employees eWHERE j.employee_id = e.employee_id and j.job_id = e.job_id)
D. DELETEFROM job_history jWHERE (employee_id, job_id) =(SELECT employee_id, job_idFROM employees eWHERE j.employee_id = e.employee_id and j.job_id = e.job_id)

Correct Answer: AD
QUESTION 96
View the Exhibit and examine PRODUCTS and ORDER_ITEMS tables.
You executed the following query to display PRODUCT_NAME and the number of times the product has been ordered:
SELECT p.product_name, i.item_cnt FROM (SELECT product_id, COUNT (*) item_cnt FROM order_items GROUP BY product_id) i RIGHT OUTER JOIN products p ON i.product_id = p.product_id;

What would happen when the above statement is executed?
A. The statement would execute successfully to produce the required output.
B. The statement would not execute because inline views and outer joins cannot be used together.
C. The statement would not execute because the ITEM_CNT alias cannot be displayed in the outer query.
D. The statement would not execute because the GROUP BY clause cannot be used in the inline view.

Correct Answer: A
QUESTION 97
View the Exhibit and examine the description of the EMPLOYEES table.
You want to display the EMPLOYEE_ID, FIRST_NAME, and DEPARTMENT_ID for all the employees who work in the same department and have the same manager as that of the employee having EMPLOYEE_ID
104. To accomplish the task, you execute the following SQL statement:
SELECT employee_id, first_name, department_id FROM employees WHERE (manager_id, department_id) =(SELECT department_id, manager_id FROM employees WHERE employee_id = 104) AND employee_id <> 104; When you execute the statement it does not produce the desired output. What is the reason for this?

A. The WHERE clause condition in the main query is using the = comparison operator, instead of EXISTS.
B. The WHERE clause condition in the main query is using the = comparison operator, instead of the IN operator.
C. The WHERE clause condition in the main query is using the = comparison operator, instead of the = ANY operator.
D. The columns in the WHERE clause condition of the main query and the columns selected in the subquery should be in the same order.

Correct Answer: D  Read More Official Information: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/training-events/training-certifications/exams/current-list/icnd1b.html
QUESTION 98
View the Exhibit and examine the structure of the EMP table.

You executed the following command to add a primary key to the EMP table:
ALTER TABLE emp
ADD CONSTRAINT emp_id_pk PRIMARY KEY (emp_id)
USING INDEX emp_id_idx;
Which statement is true regarding the effect of the command?
A. The PRIMARY KEY is created along with a new index.
B. The PRIMARY KEY is created and it would use an existing unique index.
C. The PRIMARY KEY would be created in a disabled state because it is using an existing index.
D. The statement produces an error because the USING clause is permitted only in the CREATE TABLE command.

Correct Answer: B QUESTION 99
View the Exhibitl and examine the descriptions of the EMPLOYEES and DEPARTMENTS tables.

The following SQL statement was executed:
SELECT e.department_id, e.job_id, d.location_id, sum(e.salary) total, GROUPING(e.department_id)
GRP_DEPT,
GROUPING(e.job_id) GRPJOB,
GROUPING(d. location_id) GRP_LOC
FROM employees e JOIN departments d
ON e.department_id = d.department_id
GROUP BY ROLLUP (e.department_id, e.job_id, d.location_id); View the Exhibit2 and examine the output
of the command.
Which two statements are true regarding the output? (Choose two.)
A. The value 1 in GRP_LOC means that the LOCATION_ID column is taken into account to generate the
subtotal.
B. The value 1 in GRP_JOB and GRP_LOC means that JOB_ID and LOCATION_ID columns are not taken into account to generate the subtotal.
C. The value 1 in GRP_JOB and GRP_LOC means that the NULL value in JOB_ID and LOCATIONJD columns are taken into account to generate the subtotal.
D. The value 0 in GRP_DEPT, GRPJOB, and GRP_LOC means that DEPARTMENT_ID, JOB_ID, and LOCATION_ID columns are taken into account to generate the subtotal

Correct Answer: BD

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1z0-517

LINUX

®

ESSENTIALS

LINUX

®

ESSENTIALS

Roderic k W. Smith

Acquisitions Editor: Agatha Kim 1Z0-517 Development Editor: David Clark Technical Editor: Ross Brunson Production Editor: Rebecca Anderson Copy Editor: Elizabeth Welch Editorial Manager: Pete Gaughan Production Manager: Tim Tate Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard Swadley Vice President and Publisher: Neil Edde Book Designer: Happenstance Type-O-Rama Compositor: James D. Kramer, Happenstance Type-O-Rama Proofreader: Scott Klemp, Word One New York Indexer: Ted Laux Project Coordinator, Cover: Katherine Crocker Cover Designer: Ryan Sneed Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-1-118-10679-2 ISBN: 978-1-18-19741-7 (ebk.) ISBN: 978-1-118-19739-4 (ebk.) ISBN: 978-1-118-19740-0 (ebk.) No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization or Web site is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Web site may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Web sites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (877) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Some material included with standard print versions of this book may not be included in e-books or in print-on-demand. If this book refers to media such as a CD or DVD that is not included in the version you purchased, you may download this material at http://booksupport.wiley.com. For more information about Wiley products, visit www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Control Number: 2011939652 TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Dear Reader,
Thank you for choosing Linux Essentials. This book is part of a family of premiumquality Sybex books, all of which are written by outstanding authors who combine practical experience with a gift for teaching. Sybex was founded in 1976. More than 30 years later, we’re still committed to producing consistently exceptional books. With each of our titles, we’re working hard to set a new standard for the industry. From the paper we print on, to the authors we work with, our goal is to bring you the best books available. I hope you see all that reflected in these pages. I’d be very interested to hear your comments and get your feedback on how we’re doing. Feel free to let me know what you think about this or any other Sybex book by sending me an email at [email protected] If you think you’ve found a technical error in this book, please visit http://sybex.custhelp.com. Customer feedback is critical to our efforts at Sybex. Best regards,

Neil edde Vice President and Publisher Sybex, an Imprint of Wiley

A c k n ow l e d g m e n t s
Although this book bears my name as its author, many other people contributed to its creation. Without their help, this book wouldn’t exist, or at best would exist in a lesser form. Agatha Kim was the acquisitions editor, and so helped get the book started. Denise Lincoln and David J. Clark, the development editors, and Rebecca Anderson, the production editor, oversaw the book as it progressed through all its stages. Ross Brunson was the technical editor, who checked the text for technical errors and omissions–but any mistakes that remain are my own. Liz Welch, the copy editor, helped keep the text grammatical and understandable. The proofreader, Scott Klemp, checked the text for typos. I’d also like to thank Neil Salkind and others at Studio B, who helped connect me with Wiley to write this book.

About

the

Author

Roderick W. Smith, LPIC-2, LPIC-1, CompTIA Linux+, is a Linux consultant, author, and open source programmer. He is the author of over 20 books on Linux and other open source technologies, including Linux+ Complete Study Guide; LPIC-1 Study Guide, 2nd Edition; LPIC-2 Study Guide, and Linux Administrator Street Smarts, all from Sybex.

contents
CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 9 C H A P T E R 10 C H A P T E R 11 C H A P T E R 12 C H A P T E R 13 C H A P T E R 14 C H A P T E R 15 C H A P T E R 16 C H A P T E R 17 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B

At A

gl Ance
xvii 1 21 33 49 75 99 117 131 149 165 185 203 217 235 257 271 285 307 325 329

Introduction Selecting an Operating System Investigating Linux’s Principles and Philosophy Understanding Software Licensing Using Common Linux Programs Managing Hardware Getting to Know the Command Line Managing Files Getting Help Using Programs and Processes Searching, Extracting, and Archiving Data Editing Files Creating Scripts Understanding Users and Groups Creating Users and Groups Setting Ownership and Permissions Navigating the Linux Filesystem Managing Network Connections Answers to Review Questions LPI’s Certification Program Index

contents
Introduction xvii

c hApter 1

Selecting an Ope rating Syste m

1

What Is an OS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What Is a Kernel? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What Else Identifies an OS?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Investigating User Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Using a Text-Mode User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Using a Graphical User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Where Does Linux Fit in the OS World? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Comparing Linux to Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Comparing Linux to Mac OS X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Comparing Linux to Windows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 What Is a Distribution?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Creating a Complete Linux-Based OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 A Summary of Common Linux Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Understanding Release Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 The Essentials and Beyond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

c hApter 2

I nvestigating Linu x’s P rinc iples and Philosophy
Linux through the Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Linux’s Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seeing Today’s Linux World. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Open Source Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Basic Open 1z0-517 free dumps Source Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linux as a Software Integrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding OS Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Embedded Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Desktop and Laptop Computers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Server Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Essentials and Beyond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1Z0-889 Copyright © 2002 by Gerhard Mourani and Open Network Architecture, Inc.

This book is dedicated to OpenNA staff. Thanks, guys (no-gender)!! –Gerhard Mourani This book is printed on acid-free paper with 85% recycled content, 15% post-consumer waste. Open Network Architecture is commited to using paper with the highest recycled 1Z0-889 content available consistent with high quality.

Copyright © 2002 by Gerhard Mourani and Open Network Architecture, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted by Canada Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the copyright holders Gerhard Mourani and Open Network Architecture, Inc. 11090 Drouart, Montreal, PQ H3M 2S3, (514) 978-6183, fax (514) 333-0236. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the

Publishing Manager, at Open Network Architecture, Inc., E-mail: [email protected] This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that some grammatical mistakes could have occurred but this won’t jeopardize the content or the issue raised herewith. Title: Securing and Optimizing Linux: The Hacking Solution Page Count: 1208 Version: 3.0 Last Revised: 2002-06-26 Publisher: Open Network Architecture, Inc. Editor: Ted Nackad Text Design & Drawings (Graphics): Bruno Mourani Printing History: June 2000: First Publication. Author’s: Gerhard Mourani Mail: [email protected] Website: http://www.openna.com/ National Library Act. R.S., c. N-11, s. 1. Legal Deposit, 2002 Securing and Optimizing Linux: The Hacking Solution / Open Network Architecture, Inc. Published by Open Network Architecture, Inc., 11090 Drouart, Montreal, H3M 2S3, Canada. Includes Index. ISBN 0-9688793-1-4 Printed in Canada

1

Overview
Part I
Chapter 1 Chapter 2

Installation Security
Introduction Installation Issues

Part II
Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7

System Security & Optimization
General Security Pluggable Authentication Modules General Optimization Kernel Security & Optimization Process File System Management

Part III Network Security
Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 TCP/IP Network Management Firewall Basic Concept GIPTables Firewall Squid Proxy Server SquidGuard Filter FreeS/WAN VPN

Part IV Cryptography & Authentication
Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 GnuPG OpenSSL OpenSSH Sudo

Part V

Monitoring & System Integrity
sXid LogSentry HostSentry PortSentry Snort Tripwire

Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23

Part VI Super-Server
Chapter 24 Chapter 25 UCSPI-TCP Xinetd

Part VII Management & Limitation
Chapter 26 Chapter 27 NTP Quota

Part VIII Domain Name System & Dynamic Host Protocol
Chapter 28 Chapter 29 ISC BIND & DNS ISC DHCP

Part IX Mail Transfer Agent Protocol
Chapter 30 Chapter 31 Exim Qmail

2

Part X

Internet Message Access Protocol
tpop3d UW IMAP Qpopper

Chapter 32 Chapter 33 Chapter 34

Part XI
Chapter 35 Chapter 36 Chapter 37

Anti-Spam & Anti-Virus
SpamAssassin Sophos AMaViS

Part XII Database Server
Chapter 38 Chapter 39 Chapter 40 MySQL PostgreSQL OpenLDAP

Part XIII File Transfer Protocol
Chapter 41 Chapter 42 ProFTPD vsFTPD

Part XIV Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Chapter 43 Chapter 44 Chapter 45 Apache PHP Mod_Perl

Part XV NetBios Protocol
Chapter 46 Samba

Part XVI Backup
Chapter 47 Tar & Dump

Part XVII Appendixes Appendix A
Tweaks, Tips and Administration Tasks

Appendix B
Port list

3

Contents
Steps of installation Author note Audience These installation instructions assume Obtaining the example configuration files Problem with Securing & Optimizing Linux Acknowledgments 13 13 14 15 15 15 15

Introduction

19
21 21 21 22 22 23 24 25

What is Linux? Some good reasons to use Linux Let’s dispel some of the fear, uncertainty, and doubt about Linux Why choose pristine source? Compiling software on your system Build & install software on your system Editing files with the vi editor tool Recommended software to include in each type of servers

Installation Issues

29
31 31 33 34 35 39 50 53 53 56 57 65 66 66

Know your Hardware! Creating the Linux Boot Disk Beginning the installation of Linux Installation Class and Method (Install Options) Partition your system for Linux Disk Partition (Manual Partitioning) Selecting Package Groups Boot Disk Creation How to use RPM Commands Starting and stopping daemon services Software that must be uninstalled after installation of the server Remove unnecessary documentation files Remove unnecessary/empty files and directories Software that must be installed after installation of the server

General Security 73
BIOS Unplug your server from the network Security as a policy Choose a right password The root account Set login time out for the root account Shell logging The single-user login mode of Linux Disabling Ctrl-Alt-Delete keyboard shutdown command Limiting the default number of started ttys on the server The LILO and /etc/lilo.conf file The GRUB and /boot/grub/grub.conf file The /etc/services file 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 79 79 80 80 82 84

4

The /etc/securetty file Special accounts Control mounting a file system Mounting the /usr directory of Linux as read-only Tighten scripts under /etc/init.d Tighten scripts under /etc/cron.daily/ Bits from root-owned programs Don’t let internal machines tell the server what their MAC address is Unusual or hidden files Finding Group and World Writable files and directories Unowned files Finding .rhosts files Physical hard copies of all-important logs Getting some more security by removing manual pages System is compromised!

85 85 88 89 91 91 91 93 94 95 96 96 97 99 100

Pluggable Authentication Modules

101
103 105 105 106 107 109 111 112 113

The password length Disabling console program access Disabling all console access The Login access control table Tighten console permissions for privileged users Putting limits on resource Controlling access time to services Blocking; su to root, by one and sundry Using sudo instead of su for logging as super-user

General Optimization

116
118 119 120 121 122 127 128

Static vs. shared libraries The Glibc 2.2 library of Linux Why Linux programs are distributed as source Some misunderstanding in the compiler flags options The gcc specs file Striping all binaries and libraries files Tuning IDE Hard Disk Performance

Kernel Security & Optimization

133
135 138 139 141 141 142 143 145 190 190 192 194 195 195

Difference between a Modularized Kernel and a Monolithic Kernel Making an emergency boot floppy Preparing the Kernel for the installation Applying the 1z0-889 dumps Grsecurity kernel patch Obtaining and Installing Grsecurity Tuning the Kernel Cleaning up the Kernel Configuring the Kernel Compiling the Kernel Installing the Kernel Verifying or upgrading your boot loader Reconfiguring /etc/modules.conf file Rebooting your system to load the new kernel Delete programs, edit files pertaining to modules

5

Making a new rescue floppy for Modularized Kernel Making a emergency boot floppy disk for Monolithic Kernel

196 196